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Mabul

By Matys Weiser

Intro

This will be not scientific work, although I will use some scientific data in combination with my personal observations about the Grand Canyon and other places which Hashem Yisbarach - G-d, in His great chesed - love, has allowed me to visit. I will use also some well known facts—but I will present them in something of a novel way. Mostly, I follow the tracks left by others. But first, let me share some personal background which will explain how my point of view evolved.

I was raised in communist country and attended a communist school. Dialectic Materialism was the official doctrine of the country. The theory of evolution was one of the tools used to inculcate youth with—if not with complete lack of faith in G-d—at least a resolute doubt in his involvement in the creation, and perhaps even His existence.

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Charles Darwin

Darwin proposed a theory of evolutionary transmutation: transformation of old species to new species through something called “natural selection” (e.g, survival of the fittest). The idea was quickly adopted by followers of Voltaire, so-called “free thinkers,” and others who considered G-d to be their personal enemy. Within a short time, it became the obligatory dogma of a new religion called science. Even today it is enforced with a zeal characteristic of inquisitors rather than “freethinkers.”

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Today, they don’t torture people who believe in creation, but they have fashioned an atmosphere where any one promoting creationism of any stripe is effectively sentenced to civil and public death.

Recently I saw a video explaining the theory of the “swelling” Earth. Some people profess that planet Earth was once much smaller and lacked oceans. The whole planet was one solid continent, and as a result of the swelling of the planet, continents separated. The gaps between them were filled with water. All of this is supported with nice graphic animations, which garnered over half a million views on YouTube. It also received tens of thousands of comments, most of them written in scientific language, analyzing, for example, issues of gravity and seismology.

Also on YouTube are lectures by leading creationists. And what are the comments under those videos? Name calling, ridicule, and vulgarity.

From the evolutionist point of view, both of the theories—Swelling Earth and Creationism—are equally wrong. But only one of the theories is treated with such vicious attacks and ridicule: Young Earth Creation.

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I believed in evolution. Even after my life turned towards G-d and His service, there was no contradiction in my mind between faith in G-d and the science of evolution I was brought up with. For many years, my prayers were those of young believer, fresh and zealous and longing for a personal attachment to G-d. I was seeking his guidance in my young life. Since then, my faith matured and my belief in evolution dissolved. With time, and more education on the subject, I learned that scientific data can be, and in fact is, interpreted according to personal beliefs and world views, rather than through cold, objective analysis of facts. Part of humanity is determined to impose its views on others. Elements of this group of people happen to possess superior means of propaganda. Science has ensured that any alternative analysis of the facts will be judged intrinsically false.

Science and Science 

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Consider the words of one of the greatest sons of our nation, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch:

This will never change, not even if the latest scientific notion that the genesis of all the multitude of organic forms on earth can be traced back to one single, most primitive, primeval form of life should ever appear to be anything more than what it is today: a vague hypothesis still unsupported by fact.

Even if this notion were ever to gain complete acceptance by the scientific world, Jewish thought, unlike the reasoning of the high priest of that notion, would nonetheless never summon us to revere a still extant representative of this primal form as the supposed ancestor of us all. Rather, Judaism in that case would call upon its adherents to give even greater reverence than ever before to the one, sole G-d Who, in His boundless creative wisdom and eternal omnipotence, needed to bring into existence no more than one single, amorphous nucleus and one single law of “adaptation and heredity” in order to bring forth, from what seemed chaos but was in fact a very definite order, the infinite variety of species we know today, each with its unique characteristics that sets it apart from all other creatures.

This would be nothing else but the actualization of the law of le-mino, the “law of species” with which God began His work of creation. This law of le-mino, upon which Judaism places such great emphasis in order to impress upon its adherents that all of organic life is subject to Divine laws, can accommodate even this “theory of the origin of species.” After all, the principle of heredity set forth in this theory is only a paraphrase of the ancient Jewish law of le-mino, according to which, normally, each member of a species transmits its distinguishing traits to its descendants.

This law of creation wields such power over the organic world that even seeds discovered in ancient Egyptian sarcophagi were found to have remained so potent after thousands of years that, when they were placed into the soil, they produced plants similar to those that grew in the immediate vicinity of the tombs in which the seeds had lain unsown for so long. Nowhere in all recorded history do we learn of a farmer who harvested, say, barley after he planted wheat”

“Collected Writings,” Vol. 7,  p. 263

Rabbi Hirsch was a contemporary of Charles Darwin. For more than 150 years since then, scientists have attempted to prove his theory. They have succeeded only in validating Rav Hirsch’s observations. Selection within species can bring improvement to the next generation of species, if we use the best (i.e., less mutated) of it. Any mutation to the DNA is destructive. That’s science.

Now we must discuss the age of the universe and the earth. The Big Bang, as they believe today, occurred over 13 billion years ago, and initiated the slow formation of the universe into the form as we observe it today. The age of the Earth is calculated in a manner consistent with the ages of other solar systems: “The earliest dated Solar System material was formed 4.5672 ± 0.0006 billion years ago”.

Now I know whom Hashem asked when He created the World:  it was certainly author of this calculation.

Once more, Rav Hirsch:

Judaism is not frightened by the hundreds of thousands and millions of years which the geological theory of the earth’s development bandies about so freely. Judaism would have nothing to fear from that theory even if it were based on something more than mere hypothesis, on the still unproven presumption that the forces we see at work in our world today are the same as those that were in existence, with the same degree of potency, when the world was first created.

 “Collected Writings” Vol. 7, p. 265f

These words of Rav Hirsch describe the approach to the history of planet Earth called uniformitarianism.

Among creationist there are two dominating views of the process of the creation. “Old age Earth Creationism” has many streams which differ regarding certain details of the process of the creation. All of them, however, concede that the universe and Earth are older than stated in the biblical narrative according to its simple interpretation.

“Young Earth” Creationists follow the story described in Scriptures, combining scientific data with the history of the Creation as described in Genesis. I espouse the “Young Earth Creationism” theory, although Jewish religion certainly does not bind me within its borders.

As one of the Nobel prize winner in category of literature, Czeslav Milosz, said: “The biggest brains, the greatest thinkers in the history of the mankind engaged and struggle to understand this first chapter of Hebrew Bible. It is certainly more than product of few shepherds—ex-slaves who left Egypt 33 centuries ago—as some want to picture it.”

There is more to that story than mere religious dogma; it is not dogma at all. When comes to the Creation of time and the time of the Creation, as it is described there in the first chapter of Bereishis, I wish to discuss only one of possible understandings.

Creation

After describing the first seven days of Creation, the Torah concludes with the expression, “yom echad,” which is understood usually as “the first day.” According to Hebrew grammar it should be rather have been written “yom rishon.Yom echad should be translated as “day one,” or perhaps Day of One: Day of One Who created time and its divisions, including the day.

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Other known notions derived by the Jewish Sages from very initial sentence of the Beraishis, in fact very first letter of Torah are those: Bereishis means “In the beginning,” but also could be read “bays rayshis”—“second beginning.” We also discern from the shape of letter bays, which encloses everything behind, above, and below it. It suggests that it is impossible for human being to know, to understand, what was before history of the Creation as Hakadosh Baruch Hu - G-d presented it to us starting from “Beraishis buru Elokim…- In the Beginning...

Some of us believe that light coming from the stars which are located millions of light years away from our solar system is reminiscent of that what existed before “our” Creation. Geologic strata containing fossils of the creatures unknown to us otherwise are viewed in similar spirit. Even Rav Hirsch acknowledges this in the essay quoted above. There are some other Torah authorities who suggest that fossils and the strata are products of the original creation of the six days. They assert the fossils were placed in those strata to give humanity room to err. It maintains bechira—freedom of choice—which exists only when reality is unclear.

I believe that world was Created as an act of love by the Almighty Creator 5771 earth  years ago. Geological layers are mainly produced by global flood 4115 years ago. However, some of the layers may have resulted from antediluvian smaller floods, postdiluvian local floods, or from secondary floods caused by huge continental water bodies, as explained below.

Let us recall that we talking about an Almighty Creator who, if He so wishes, might have created everything yesterday—including all our memories. Yes: the whole universe, just yesterday! It is possible for Almighty. He didn’t need more than seven days to create the Universe. In fact He didn’t need seven days either. Everything might happen by His single utterance, all the Creation, together with time (which is also one of His creations). Hakadosh Baruch Hu chose a seven day pattern of Creation for reasons related to the crown of his creation: human beings and His chosen nation. There was no other reason for His rest on Seventh day of the Creation cycle than setting an example for his Chosen people to learn from.

Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River gives tremendous opportunity to observe the geological history of our planet from its Creation until present. In the inner canyon, within the basement formations, we may see volcanic rocks of zoroaster granite and metamorphic rock of vishnu schist.

Above volcanic rocks of the foundation of our continent, the diagonal sediment layers called “Supergroup” form a large part of the outer canyon. Then we encounter a phenomenon called the “great unconformity,” where diagonal layers are cut by the higher horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks containing sandstone, limestone, and shale rocks in the tall, sometimes vertical walls of the Canyon.

Both evolutionist and creationists see the interpretation of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River as the key support for their beliefs. Here, I present a creationist view of the subject, combined with my own observation and research on this fascinating topic. First, let’s learn what Chazal have to say about the subject. Considering the fact that our Sages concentrated rather on moral and spiritual perfection of individual and society, there is a surprisingly large body of writing that hints about our planet’s past.

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Grand Canyon

Jewish Sages on Antediluvian World

In Midrash Bereshis Rabba - an ancient commentary to Scriptures, Rabbi Yitzchok describes an antediluvian world in much different characteristics from those as we know them. The temperature of the planet was steady and moderate, and the seasons never changed; it was constant spring time. The fields were cultivated every four years. Communication between the people was much easier, perhaps because all of the land was joined in a single continent. Rav Hirsch interprets Rabbi Yitzhok’s explanation as such; the Malbim also maintains that easy communication should have served as a means for spiritual growth, but instead became a means of humanity’s moral failure.

Rav Hirsch describes the old world in following terms (Genesis 8:2):

The places where so called antediluvian remains have been found indicate that in earlier times there was a quite different assignment of seasons and temperatures, and that the splitting asunder and conformations of the earth by the oceans, rivers, mountains, volcanic eruptions, etc., as we know it are of the later period.

The present condition of planet Earth is much different than before the mabul. In fact, it was shaped by the forces of the Flood. Was the Great Flood of Noah the only factor in creating our today’s environment or the geologic strata so beautifully exposed in the Grand Canyon?

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According to our Sages, before the mabul, there was at least one great in size flood somewhere between time of Creation and Flood of Noah. Rashi to Genesis 6:4 comments, “And also afterward—even though they saw the destruction of the generation of Enosh, for the ocean overflowed and inundated a third of the world…”

Can it be observed in geological strata? Perhaps it can, below the “great unconformity” so clearly visible in the Grand Canyon. Most of the sediment of the Grand Canyon layers are horizontal to the earth and shaped by the same forces of gravity as we know them today.

However, some of the layers located between volcanic basement rock and horizontal main layers of the canyon’s strata are diagonal layers of sediment called Supergroup. Were those diagonal layers deposited when the continental mass was situated at a different angle in relation to Earth’s gravity? Certainly. Is this the work of the first flood of the generation of Enosh? Perhaps.

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Basic Divisions of Strata

But how the other layers were deposited? Perhaps all of the strata are the product of the seven days of the Creation—and have nothing to do with the great Flood of Noah? According to Rav Hirsch’s interpretation of the Medrash, before the mabul all the continents known to us today formed one super continent. Believers of Evolution likewise acknowledge the existence of super-continent called Pangaea.

Flood of Global Proportions

When you take a look at the map of the continents from the side of the Atlantic Ocean, you will observe that shapes of the continents correspond to each other like two pieces of puzzle. It is especially visible on the western coast of African and eastern coast of South American continents. Those have strikingly parallel edges. It is harder to see this pattern, when you look at the west coast of Europe and east coast of Northern America. If you however take another map, showing our continents together with continental shelves (i.e., if you look at the edge where continental mass really ends, approximately 700 feet under today’s level of the oceans), then the shapes of Europe and North America likewise match.

Creationists and evolutionists of course differ about the time of the split of this single mass of land to the seven continents known to us. For evolutionists, it took millions of years. For the Creationist, it took perhaps half of a year, and no longer than year.

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It is interesting that when Gemura (Mesechta Sanhedrin 108b) informs us about some details of the mabul, it cites the familiar rule of “mida keneged mida” – measure for measure. It states, “The generation of flood become arrogant because of the eyeball, which resembles water.” The dor hamabul—the generation of the flood—was punished for following their eyes. The eye was given as a means to appreciate the beauty of creation. Instead, the generation of the flood used the eye as a tool for pursuing earthly desires. As a punishment and means of restoration of humanity, Creator brought water on the surface of the planet.

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But the wording of Gemura is that they became arrogant because of the eyeball, and only later the Flood was the instrument of purification. When you imagine a single antediluvian continent (which is essentially what Pangaea was, according to some of the creationists), the planet earth looked like cosmic sized eyeball. As Rav Hirsh and the Malbim explained, this single continent was rich with resources, a pleasant climate, and easy communication. It was given as an opportunity for spiritual return to the lost Gan Eden. It was misused.

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Two Hypothetical Reconstructions of Pangaea

Rashi, on the same Gemura in Sanhedrin, translates the word ain as both eye and fountain. In accordance with the principle of “mida keneged mida,” the punishment resembled and recalled the violation that brought it on.

Continental Drift

Today, the Americas are distant from Europe and Africa by almost 3000 miles on average. If continental drift—the split of the continents—was set in motion on the first days of mabul and ended when the waters of the Flood began to recede almost 200 days later (according to Rashi; 150 days according to Ramban) we may calculate average speed of its progress. If continents split on the line of the today’s mid-Atlantic ridge volcanic mountain chain, spanning almost from Arctic to Antarctic circles, and located approximately halfway between continents, the continents moved 1,500 miles in both west and east direction. For the 150 days scenario, the calculation is very easy: one hundred miles a day, or 4 miles per hour. For a mass of those dimensions, it is a speed of catastrophic proportions, and so was its result for the entire planet. Let’s follow Chazal on this part of the mabul.

From Rashi and from the Medrash, we learn that Noah witnessed first seven days of the mabul. Noah entered the Ark only after the water rose significantly. We may assume that what he saw and experienced was transmitted to his son Shaim and grandson Aiver. From them it became oral tradition of our nation, as we know that our Yaacov learned with them for 14 years.

Rashi in his comment on Parshas Noah (Genesis 7:12) suggests that the first rain was gentle, and only after a while it became a flood. Ramban in the second part of his commentary concurs with Rashi. The rain—not catastrophic, but supernatural for the pre-flood generation—was intended to bring them to Teshuva, a return to G-d. But the people of this wicked generation declared that they had all necessary measures to protect them from the Creator’s wrath, be it a mabul of fire or water. (Talmud-Sanhedrin 108b). After an initial warning in form of this first rain, more catastrophic events followed.

“It came to pass after seven day period that waters of the flood were upon the earth.” The Holy One, Blessed is He, altered upon them the natural order of Creation (the seven days cycle) for the sun would rise in the west and set in the east” (Sanhedrin 108b)

Rashi comments on this Gemura that the natural order of Planet Earth was disrupted at the advent of the flood. Rashi to Genesis 8:22 comments, “And day and night, shall not cease.” This implies that day and night ceased during the Flood; the constellations did not function; and the difference between day and night was indiscernible.”

The revolving movement of the whole planet was slowed down, or perhaps the planet was stopped entirely. It is highly possible that today’s 23.5º tilt of our planet to the plane of its orbit around the Sun is the result of this cosmic adjustment. The whole planet lost its balance and bounced for a while. Perhaps this sudden slowdown of the revolving movement of the planet caused the split of the supercontinent Pangaea into pieces.

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23, 5 Tilt is the Reason for Seasons

The evidence of the poles moving (possibly even flip-flopping entirely, which would explain the words of Chazal about the sun rising from the west) is known to geologists. All ferromagnetic metals, e.g. iron, are deposited in the form of ore in the geological layers. The pattern in which particles of metal are laid in the ore shows the directions of the south and north polls of the planet. It is known that those patterns are lined in all possible directions, indicating a switch of the poles. If this would be only the case of volcanic basement rock, we would apply this to the seven days of Creation when anything could have happened to the planet. However, iron ore deposited in the sedimentary rocks shows this kind of variation.

“All the fountains of the great depth (t’hom raba) burst forth. Rabbi Yochanan said: Three of them remained (after the flood): the whirlpool of Gader, the hot springs of Tiberias, and the great fountain of Beiram.” (Sanhedrin 108b)

Rashi on Chumash echos the Gemura: “The fountains of deep and the windows of heaven were closed. When they were opened, it is written all the fountains, but here, ‘All’ is not written. Because some of them remained open: those for which world has need, such as the hot springs of Tiberia and the like.”

As the continents began to drift, the magma from beneath the surface of the earth crust became exposed in different parts of the planet. All the fractures created between now moving continents exploded with hot lava. Oceanic waters cascaded on the lava creating clouds of steam of planetary proportions. Clouds created by this steam produced rain unknown to humanity before or after the mabul.

Rashi on Genesis 6:17 writes, “Mabul—flood—because it decayed everything, because it confused everything, because it transported everything… for it caused all things to float away to a lower elevation like Buvel—Babylonia—where all the dead of the Flood were moved to.”

Ramban in his explanation of Genesis 8:11 understands from the Midrash that all of the trees were uprooted and even huge boulders were transported and worn away by the power of water. Rashi on Genesis 7:13 says, “The earth: With the earth, for three tfuchim of the depth of the plow were also dissolved and washed away,” obviously with all the vegetation and life on its surface.

“It is taught in the Beraisa: the waters of the flood were harsh like semen.” (Sanhedrin 108b) Rashi on Gemura: “Hot, vicious and thick in texture.” Ramban on Genesis 7:23, “The waters of the Flood were boiling hot.” Rabbi Hirsch explain the word vaysuku in Genesis 8:1, “The use of this expression indicates that the action of the waters of the Flood was not merely mechanically destructive but also chemically dissolving.” Rabbi Avigdor Miller describes mabul in quite contemporary terms: “In addition to the flood water, many volcanoes were open and erupted with molten lava, which certainly is hot and vicious.”

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Grand Prism Pool of Yellowstone

Hot springs and geysers can be found all around the world. The American continent is privileged with a region where almost half of all the geysers of the world are located: the Yellowstone Caldera in Yellowstone National Park. This first National Park in the history of mankind was established to protect this enchanted land of unbelievable beauty and geological features. The Yellowstone caldera is the outlet of probably the biggest volcano which ever existed on this planet. As per Chazal’s statement, it was open at the time of mabul. After it extinguished most of the volcanoes, the molten magma remained relatively close to the surface of the earth. This magma heats the hot springs and geysers. 

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One of Hundreds of  Geysers in Yellowstone

The words of our Sages describe events of the  mabul with great detail, entirely consistent with the scientific interpretations of the leading creationists. Unfortunately, due to the fact that those scientists possess limited access to the language of Scriptures (and certainly to our oral tradition), they lack of information received from our previous generations of Sages. On the other hand, their scientific observations and explanations give additional light to the event of the great Flood.

365 days of Flood

For at least 150 days, continental masses drifted with the great speed in different directions across the planet. Thick water, mixed with volcanic deposit and soil of the antediluvian surface of the earth, roared across the continents with great fury. New continents created after the split of Pangaea were “running away” from each another in opposite direction, approaching each other from the other side of the planet. While continental plates were floating over the earth’s mantle toward the old, antediluvian Ocean on the side of today’s Pacific, great amounts of the oceanic floor were crushed and sediment material was spread over the land by the waters of continental sized tsunamis. Water from that old antediluvian ocean filled the gap (which later became known as the Atlantic Ocean) from the north and south. Day after day, hour after hour, minute after minute, new deposits of sediment were dumped over continents in layers thick and thin. Gigantic waves coming from different parts of the planet were bringing different deposits of different physical characteristics and chemical structure, different grains, and different colors. The deposited material became the grave for all the creatures living before and killed by mabul.

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“When Rav Dimi came he said: The Holly One, Blessed is He, said: ‘I did well in that I prepared graves for them in the earth.’” (Sanhedrin 108b) The Gemura explains, “graves” is the alternative translation of Bereshis 6:6. The Gemura emphasizes the fact that it is written bauretz, in the ground, and not al huuretz, on its surface.

Rashi on Genesis 7:23 says, “Everything that was on dry land died, but not fish that were in the sea.”  “And Hashem said, ‘I will dissolve (emcheh) man. He is soil and I will bring upon him water and dissolve him.” Ramban comments along the same lines as Rashi.

The remains of the antediluvian generation are underground today, like most of everything what existed then, all in the form of fossil fuels or other fossils. According to Sanhedrin 108b, some of the human bodies were floating on the surface of the waters, thus exposed for quick deterioration and not leaving any remains.

Rabbi Hirsch suggests, based on a Gemura in Shabbat 152b, that the bones and bodies of the wicked generation of mabul were weaker due to the moral corruption and sensuality. As result, no skeletal remains of dor hamabul are to be found. This is not the case, however, with remains of fauna and flora of antediluvian world.

Everything dissolved. No organic, DNA-containing remains of the antediluvian world exist, although petrified bones of animals are found all over the world. Most fossil species have living decedents, especially marine creatures. What happened to the animals living before the Mabul?

Animals

The same Gemura (Sanhedrin 108b) brings the following statement: “All flesh had perverted it way on the Earth. Rabbi Yochanan said, ‘This teaches that they mounted domesticated animals upon wild animals, wild animals upon domesticated animals, all upon humans and humans upon animals.’” Midrash Bereishis Raba describes further that animals trained by humans to this kind of perverted ways of cohabitation continued to do this abomination out of their will.

It is significant that no skeletal remain of so called broken chain of evolution were found, yet other remains of animals resembling such cross-birthing are common. 

Genesis 7:23 reads, “And they were blotted out from the earth.” Ramban comments (also Ibn Ezra and Radak), “the repetition is to tell us that all trace of them was forgotten, for they had no descendants.” We may say almost with certainty that this was the case of not only those hybrids, but also some of the larger species. Some species later, after the Flood, became extinct as a result of climate changes and human activity. (It is beyond of the scope of this work to analyze even briefly to which category we may include some of the dinosaurs and other giant animals known to us from fossil record.)

Within the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River there are no known fossils of big animals, such as mammals or dinosaurs. Nevertheless, there are two major layers of sediment containing marine fossils. Water creatures were not subject to punishment during the mabul, however, such a global event as the Flood surely destroyed some marine life and other creatures living in fresh water or inland water bodies with the rest of the life on the continent Pangaea.

Ramban on Genesis 7:23 suggest that some of the continental fish survived in the pockets of the rain water. Other fish escaped to the ocean where the water was cool. It obviously implies that a significant amount of marine life did not survive the thick, hot, and chemically poisonous waters of the mabul.

One of the layers visible in the Grand Canyon called “Redwall limestone” contains remains of the nautuloid, an octopus-like creature living in long, coned shell.

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Two Samples of Nautuloid Fossils and Its Reconstruction

The fossils and the layer of sediment they lay in were the subject of extensive research by of one of the leading creationists, Steven Austin, Ph.D.  Austin estimated the amount of fossilized nautloids at from one billion to ten billion animals cast in the red sedimentary layer. After detailed analysis, he discovered that animals were killed in rapid event—not, as evolutionists claim, that animals were deposited on the bottom of the sea as they died naturally. The size of the animals indicates that the entire population was killed, and not only adult (i.e., old) animals. Due to the shape of the animal, pointing toward the pick of the cone (see illustration), all animals were directed against one side, presumably as a result of the muddy tsunami that killed them from the opposite side.

This one scientific discovery alone serves as an example of dishonesty of the evolutionist, who, when it comes to facts that contradict their dogmas, simply don’t acknowledge them. This is precisely the accusation so often heard from evolutionists against creationists.

Another layer of sediment containing huge amounts of marine life in the walls of the Grand Canyon, is a formation located on the top of the canyon layers. We find sponges, corals, and sea shells cemented in the creamy colored Kaibab formation on both sides of the canyon, north and south.

The Kaibab formation is part of Mesozoic rocks layers. From the root “meso,” we know that it is middle, central layer of sedimentary rocks. Indeed, although this deposit lays on the top of the Grand Canyon, geologically what is the “top” of the Grand Canyon it is bottom layer of Zion Canyon, and the layer on top of the Zion is the bottom layer of Bryce formations. Geologist call this the “Grand Staircase,” and certainly it is greatest display of the geological history of our planet.

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Queries

On the east side of the Canyon, within the borders of Navajo Indian Reservation, there is a place called Dinosaurs Tracks. We find there multiple tracks of different sizes and going in various directions. More than that, there are few locations within that place where we may see petrified eggs—most of them almost certainly from the very animals whose footprints remain in the layer of once soft, uncemented mud. The place is located some 3,000 feet below the highest rims of the Grand Canyon at the Kaibab Plateau, i.e. at the bottom of Kaibab upwarp, 4,500 feet above sea level. The layers of sediment would belong to the Supergroup, below the great unconformity, as the Supergroup is also located approximately 4,500 feet above the sea level.  However the geological layers of this place belong rather to the one of the upper layers of the Canyon because of the upwarp.

The Kaibab Plateau was raised at the time when the layers of sediment were still soft. The volcanic basement rock pushed up the mass of the partially dry mud, thus even today the layers of strata are separated in elevation by more than 3,000 feet, there is visible continuity of these strata from the top of the Kaibab plateau to the east side of the Canyon where those footprints are to be found further east.

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‘Dinosaur Tracks’

In the first case, when we would assume that the footprints are made in one of the layers of Supergroup, they would belong to animals walking on the mud of the antediluvian flood mentioned by Chazal. If, however, those footprints are made in the layers of the great mabul of Noah, then we must provide a different explanation.

It is perhaps possible that, if the water of the mabul covered the land in the form of giant tsunamis, there were intervals of time when the new layers of mud after being deposited by previous tsunami were exposed to the surface. Considering the fact that the layers of the Grand Canyon represent rather early stages of the mabul, it is possible that some animals were still alive at this time. The footprints are imprinted on the red colored rock. We may assume that it is one of the layers located above Redwall Limestone where nautloids, mentioned previously, were cast to their death. I suspect that those layers belong rather to the Supai Group, which form a sloped wall in the canyon, below the creamy colored Coconino Sandstone. Unfortunately, I do not know of any geological chart of this region of the Navajo land.

If I’m correct, those footprints would be made by some of the larger animals which survived the first impact of the mabul: perhaps large, three-fingered birds? It may be assumed that as there are existing fossils of six-foot long centipedes, the birds of that time were also bigger. This kind of scenario, i.e. tsunamis with intervals of semi-dry exposure of the surface, can also explain the footprints of the smaller animals which could be unearthed in the Coconino Sandstone itself.

Another factor supporting this hypothesis is the presence of sand ripples characteristic for shallow water in the top layer of the canyon, the Kaibab Limestone.

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Shallow Water Ripples In the Top Layer of the Canyon 8000 ft a.s.l.

Remember, even higher layers of the Grand Canyon between the rims of the canyon and on both sides of Kaibab plateau represent older layers, deposited at the beginning of the mabul. Then we have all the strata of Zion and Bryce. It is significant that in those upper layers, only marine fossils and petrified trees stumps are found in abundance. No skeletal remains or footprints are to be found.

Strata proves Young Earth Theory

One of the striking characteristics of the Grand Canyon which confirms Young Earth Creation Theory is the way the different layers of the strata are deposited one above another. The greatest power shaping the land besides gravity is weather erosion. Rain, even on flat ground, travels toward lower elevations, cutting grooves, ravines and ultimately canyons. Walls of ravines sometimes collapse, clogging the natural outlet for the water and creating the lakes. The bottoms of those lakes are filled with new deposits of sediment brought by new rains. Lakes overflow and the surface of the planet changes again. We observe this today. Sometimes our own neighborhoods are changed overnight. One big thunderstorm can not only change our front lawn, but alter our daily commute because of a washed out road or bridge.

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Sample of Ultimate Erosion, Bryce Canyon

We know the world with higher and lower elevations, hills and valleys, rivers, ravines, and other variations of the surface. Those variations of terrain should be indicated on the joint lines of different layers of the sediment, especially in the place like Grand Canyon, whose strata are cut through its 270 mile length. There is almost no sign of erosion on the surface of multiple layers visible below rims of the Grand Canyon. Just the opposite! Some of the layers are cut flat as if with leveling tools, joining each another smoothly, with no signs of the erosion. This fact creates huge problems for uniformitarianists and Old Earth creationists, however is easily explained by the Flood, which deposited layers of mud within one catastrophic year.

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Horizontal Strata with One of the ‘Mushroom’ Stones on the Bottom

A further factor supporting this model of strata deposits in the  Grand Canyon is the complete lack of volcanic activity within supposed millions of years of geological sediment. The only volcanic rock which we may observe within the Grand Canyon and its surroundings is that of the Basement Rock from the time of Creation, and rather fresh lava flows on the top of the plateaus surrounding the Grand Canyon. In fact, there is a chain of volcanoes in close proximity of the canyon called the San Francisco Mountains.

All other observable lava flows are located on postdiluvial surface. We see it predominantly on the south side of the Grand Canyon, but they are present also on the north side, including borders of Colorado Plateau. The lava flows near the town of Hurricane appear just as fresh as those on the way from Zion to Bryce. These are a few thousand feet different in elevation, but the flows of volcanic basalts cover the sedimentary rocks and are uncovered by any sediment. There are also lava flows descending to the bottom of the Grand Canyon all the way from its top rim. They may be observed from a place called Lava Rapids.

It looks like all the volcanoes in this area were waiting until the last deposit was laid down and only than erupted. Indeed an excellent scenario for Young Earth Creation Theory—and very difficult to explain by the other theories.

Mountains

Ramban on Genesis 7:18 writes, “And the waters increased and rose: ‘The (second) interpretation of the phrase is that all of the floodwaters retained their strength even upon the high mountains and they swept over them.’”

Rashi on Genesis 7:20: “Fifteen amos above, above the height of the all mountains.”

In light of the above, we may certainly say that the mountains of the old world were not as tall as the mountains raised as the result of moving continents. In Genesis 8:4-5, Rashi calculates the depth of the submerged part of the Ark, which indicates that after the water began to recede (almost 200 days in to the Mabul, according to Rashi, and 150 according to Ramban), Mount Ararat, upon which the Ark rested, was still highest mountain on the planet.

It may indicate that the rise of the mountain chains known to postdiluvial world began after the continents stopped drifting. As result of this standstill of the continental masses, the tectonic plates got fractured and this caused the mountains to elevate. For the Indian subcontinent drifting toward Asia, the impact of this drifting raised the Himalayas, for example.

Ramban in his comment on Genesis 8:6 give us alternative explanation. According to this scenario, the waters of Flood covered even the mountains higher than Ararat. When Torah informs us about that the mountains became visible 73 days after the Ark rested on the Mount Ararat, it tells us that it was visible then for Noah using the window which he opened occasionally. The other, higher mountains were sticking out from the water already before that.

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Sample of Sedimentary Mountains – Glacier National Park - Montana

If the process of the raising mountain occurred already at the first half year of the mabul under the cover of the water, then this is a possible explanation: Perhaps the first folding of the upper layer of the Earth’s crust resulted soon after continents started to travel, however, its sudden stop broke masses of land, fractured them, and raised the mountains. Parts of European Alps are, for example, were turned over by moving masses of earth’s crust. Imagine part of big loaf of seven layer cake detached from the loaf and turned top to the bottom--but in the scale of an area of a few hundred square miles and few miles thick.

In the case of both Americas, the mountain chains are located toward the west of the continents, and in the case of South America on its western edge. Some of the new folds were still covered with un-cemented sediment, causing it to bend and resulting in unbroken curved shapes of the layers of sediment. Those folded layers of sedimentary rocks we may see in the cut-through rock on highway 17 to upstate NY, or in the beautiful picks of Glacier National Park. Such rock formations are common.

The last Tsunami of the Mabul

After continents slowed down or stopped entirely, the oceanic water ceased to overflow American continents from west to east as it had previously. However the new Atlantic Ocean was still being filled up from north and south. The extra amount of water which usually fills up the empty spaces caused by, for example, the sudden downward movement of tectonic plates, creates a Tsunami effect. The same mechanism brought perhaps more water to Atlantic Ocean than it could contain.

This last great tsunami washed over the part of North American continent from east to west or rather from the southeast to west. The water of this gigantic wave washed away some of the sediment deposited previously by the mud traveling from the west toward east. Some of this sediment was still uncemented and easily relocated. This would explain the missing layers of sediment above the Mesozoic strata of the Grand Canyon and perhaps creation of the Canyon itself.

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When we travel to the Grand Canyon from the south, we pass on the right side a hill called Red Butte. Red Butte is build out of sedimentary rock present in geologically upper layer on the north side of the Canyon, within Grand Staircase, but totally washed out on the south. The only remainder of the missing layers is two sedimentary hills, including Red Butte. It is obvious that those layers were washed away after its deposition at the time of the mabul. The washing away of this amount of rock (or perhaps still mud), can be explained only by such an enormous tsunami. Later, I will explain, why this last wave of the mabul came from the southeast.

Rashi comments on Genesis 8:14 that the mabul lasted for one lunar year and eleven days: exactly one solar year. Ramban on Genesis 8:1 says: “Waters of deep were swallowed up into their place.” Seder Olam also gives this description. This can be understood that there was no more or less water on planet Earth than before mabul. The water was redistributed. New oceans, new seas, were created. Huge inland bodies of water still existed on the continents after the mabul. Some dried out, leaving deposits of salt on the surface of the deserts, such as those of the Great Basin covering most of Nevada and part of California.

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Dry FallsWashington State

Other, like Lake Missoula, drained toward the Pacific Ocean, carving the deep canyons of the present day Snake and Columbia Rivers. While filled up with water from melting icecap, the waters of this lake also created one of the great wonders of our country: the Dry Falls of Washington State. The other postdiluvial lake of which remnants remain even in our generation was Lake Bonneville of northern Utah. What is left of this Great lake of Bonneville is rich in minerals and still lowering its level, e.g., drying, Great Salt Lake.

Travelers of the Interstate 80 still may see at least two coast lines on the high hills on the south and east side of Salt Lake City, proving that lake Bonneville drained more than once, or perhaps was filled up by the melting ice of the glacier era.

The distribution of animals around the world suggests that shortly after the mabul, the level of the Oceans was lower than it is today. If it was only 700 feet lower than today, where the continental shelve ends, it was enough for all land animals to travel to all ends of the planet. It is significant that only Australia, with its quiet specific fauna, does not have large mammals like the rest of the continents. Separated by the Indian Ocean from the main land of Euro-Asio-Africa, Australia did not have large connection to the rest of the land—or this connection lasted too short time for the animals to travel.

The Bering Connection between Asia and Americas served as a bridge for animals and, later, people. All agree that the Americas were populated from north toward south.

One of the geologic features that support the theory of lower sea levels after the mabul are the submarine canyons. They are carved in continental shelve by many rivers floating to the oceans. On our continent they may be found on the both sides of our country—the canyon of Monterey on the west and the canyon of the Hudson River on the east.

Both of those submarine canyons are greater in size and depth than the Grand Canyon of Colorado River. What puzzles scientists is how they were formed. Some claim that it was carved at time of the ice age when freezing masses of water over the continents retreated. As tempted as we might be to agree with this theory, the rivers which supposedly carved those canyons were much too small to do so.

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The same people claim that the carving of the Grand Canyon took millions of years, while submarine canyons were carved within a thousand or perhaps hundreds of years. According to their estimate, the ice age took place 10,000 years ago.

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The history of the mabul answers theirs query. Only the mass of mud receding from the continent was able to shape those canyons. The mud, much heavier than water, contained huge boulders, and moved with great velocity as gravity caused it to flow down, cutting through the rock with great impact. Both of the canyons in question terminate at the bottom of continental slope, along the ocean floor, with deposits of washed down material, creating what is called “fan.” It has been observed that those submarine canyons are still being carved by the motion of the continent sediment. Needless to say, it happens at a slow pace.

In 1999 it was discovered that the Black Sea level was once 500 feet lower than it is today. All the major riverbeds of still existing rivers like Volga or Danube terminate at approximately this depth. Fossils of fresh water mollusk are found there as well. Some claim to have discovered products of human hand, such as carved stones and ceramic, at these depths. This, and the proximity of the sea to Mount Ararat where Noah’s Ark rested, would further confirm that after the mabul, the waters of the oceans were lower. Only after they rose did they break through the Bosporus strait and perhaps even Gibraltar.

Ice Age

Some suggest that it started at very beginning of the mabul. At the moment the planet was suddenly stopped and tilted, this somehow frosted the waters on both ends of the planet. Others suggest that perhaps an extraterrestrial ice body hit the planet and magnetic polls collected the extra water in the form of the ice caps, freezing live animals as they were on their pasture land. This theory is also suggested by some of the Young Earth creationists.

I have a few problems with those theories. First, there are some of the same sediment deposits under the ice caps of the northern hemisphere as in the Grand Canyon. Some of the sedimentary rocks extend all the way from south of North America, to northern Canada, and even to Greenland. The ice caps of the ice age, however, extended as far as the northern U. S. states. We find everywhere in the U. S. sediment from this former icecap. It would be impossible to leave the same deposit under the ice as on the rest of the continent if the water of icecaps had been frozen at the beginning of the mabul.

The frozen animals found in the still melting icecap on both American and Asian continents contain almost all the DNA necessary for reconstructing them. This in my understanding contradicts the statement of Scriptures and Chazal saying that all of the life will be dissolved (unless there is any other definition of the Hebrew word emcheh).

Another fact suggesting that ice age happened after the mabul is the pure environment trapped in the ice caps: frozen grass land, rather than lavish flourishing flora of antediluvian world described by Chazal. Mammoths, mastodons and other frozen animals lived after the mabul and were hunted by humans, as documented by pictographic record and archeological discoveries.

On our continent we may find huge cemeteries of petrified bones of those animals in a few places, such as The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs in South Dakota. Fossilized remnants of those big mammals may be found almost everywhere. Those, however, are bones of animals killed like rest of the fauna by the Great Flood of Noah. Animals frozen in Siberia, Alaska, and North West Territories are certainly postdiluvial.

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The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs in South Dakota

Petrified trees

What happened to the antediluvian flora? Some of us know that the coal once heating our houses and still heating our electric plants is of organic origin. Most of us, however, saw the coal only in a museum display.

I have personally loaded coal into the kitchen stove. It was common to see imprints of small branches, leaves, and needles when the coal was broken apart. Coal can be found around the world in different stages of petrifaction. Some places closer to the earth surface have it in the form of lignite, still looking more like wood than stone. All scientists agree that coal was transformed to its present form from the huge dense forests existing sometime in the past. Once more, the time line will differ between evolutionists and Young Earth creationists.

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Petrified Log on the Top of One of the Mesas of Colorado Plateau

All over the world we find petrified trees. Some of the huge trunks of trees were floating on the top of the Floods waters and they settled on the top of the sediment deposits. Saturated and covered with volcanic ash, in still wet environment, wood stumps underwent a relatively quick process of petrifaction. Rich in minerals and silica, volcanic ash was the main factor accelerating this process.

The dead organic cells of the wood were replaced by silica and minerals without changing the shape of the trees cells and the trees themselves. The transformation occurred quicker than wood was able to deteriorate. Some of those petrified trunks, later exposed by erosion, have fantastic colors, due to the different minerals penetrating the dead wood. Petrified frees may be found in nearly every U. S. state.

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Petrified Stump – Florissant Fossil Basin - Colorado

One type of petrified tree trunks creates a further problem for the evolutionist but could be easily explained through mabul catastrophe: polystrate petrified trees.

As the name suggests, these trees cut through numerous layers of sediment, crossing them often at a straight angle. If every layer of the strata represents long periods of time (as evolutionists claim), the trees must have been petrified even while they were still alive!

When Mt. St. Helen's volcano erupted in 1980, it uprooted and blew down many square miles of forest. Many of those trunks ended in nearby Lake Spirit, covering the surface of a large part of the lake. They are still afloat thirty years later. It was observed however, that some of the trunks submerge and some are vertical. That was exactly the case of polystrate trees and some other fossils.

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Lake Spirit Covered Partially With Logs From 1980 Eruption of St. Helen

It was not millions of years of deposit growing around still standing trees, but rapid deposit of volcanic ashes that bounded the trunks. The ash and stones thrown up by the volcano change its mineral characteristic and color, sometime within minutes, as material containing different minerals is pushed from beneath. The color of the cooled ash and stones may also depend on the temperature on the surface of the earth and how quickly the ash or lava cooled. This is the reason for differently colored strata surrounding those trees.

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Colorful Stone on Mount Rainer Volcano – Washington State

Noah’s Ark

For those who are uncomfortable explaining the events of the mabul in naturalistic term, consider this. There was nothing natural in the fact of mabul itself. However, some of the mechanisms ruling in our natural world were involved and were not suspended for the time of Flood. As Chazal explain, the reason for that was the level of Noah’s righteousness. He was great tzadik in his generation, but Hashem did not want to perform open miracles because of Noah’s insufficient level of tzidkus; he did not deserve such an open miracle.

Our Universe is not the ultimate reality. In fact, we have no idea about ultimate reality. We may learn from our kabula (tradition) some ideas about what exists in the higher worlds. But the most important thing we learn is that this temporary world was created only as the spiritual battlefield to give us opportunities to exercise our bechira (freedom of choice).

The existence of the universe is miraculous in its very makeup; however this quality is concealed by what we call nature—natural phenomenon. These natural phenomena were largely maintained during the time of the mabul, with one exception: the saving of Noah, his family, and the animals. Chazal describe the reason for placing Noah in charge of the animals in purely moral terms. Noah was supposed to learn the midah of chesed – compassion in this difficult way. By taking care of the animals on a daily basis, Noah increased his love toward creation, compensating for the lack of chesed among people of his generation, as it is explained by Rabbi Eliahu Desler.

Regarding the capacity and size of the Ark (Genesis 6:19), Ramban comments, “This Ark could never contain them (people, animals, and supply), nor even ten arks like it! It was matter of miracle that small was able to contain large” Further, Ramban explain following Ibn Ezra that all the creation before mabul was much larger than the people and animals after the mabul. So even if the Ark would be made according to their measurements, it still would be too small for all of the contents. The Midrash tells us that when Adam Harishon – first man, was to be laid down to rest in Maaras Hamakpeila – the tomb of Patriarchs, he was much taller than the Uvois.

In light of this comment, we see that evident miracle took place, at least according to our standards of “natural.”  It can be called “Rabbit Hole,” to borrow the idea from “Alice in the Wonderland,” or “portal to another dimension” to use more modern language. The fact “that small was able to contain large” cannot be explained by natural phenomenon.

How was the Grand Canyon was created?

The most popular Creationist hypothesis to explain the carving of the Grand Canyon is “Overspill Theory.” This theory is also becoming popular among some of the evolutionists, albeit according to a different timeline.

The Colorado River flows from the north, then turns almost ninety degrees and enters the highest part of the Grand Canyon from east toward west. The major problem for the evolutionist claim that this relatively small river cut that huge canyon over millions of years is the Kaibab uplift or upwarp. The Colorado River on the east side of the Kaibab Plateau cuts through the flats of Navajo land, which elevation at that point, at Marble Canyon, is as low as 3,100 feet above sea level.

There is only one place between Lake Powel and Lake Mead where the river is accessible by car it is Lee’s Ferry, at the conjunction of the Paria River. From there, Marble Canyon cuts its way toward south where a gentle slope reaches as much as 6,000 feet in elevation, at the conjunction with the Little Colorado River. The east wall of the Canyon is here already 3,300 feet high. The river turns toward the west and cuts through Kaibab Swell at 7,500-8,000 feet above sea level, where south rim towers some 5,000 feet over the Colorado River, and north rim almost 6,000 feet. In order to cut through the Kaibab Swell, the river would have had to flow uphill some 5,000 feet. Needless to say, impossible.

Evolutionists theorized that the river was cutting down into the canyon at the same pace that Kaibab Plateau was rising. There are problems with that theory, besides the time issue. The first is the existence of so-called “barbed wire” canyons: all the seasonal creeks and washes entering the Colorado River from the opposite direction. (This is an unparalleled phenomenon, as rivers usually join other rivers under sharp angles… but from the same direction as the main river and rarely opposite.) Unless those barbed wire canyons are products of recent erosion, they cannot be explained by the theoretical slow rise of the Kaibab Swell. The other problem is the side canyons, some of which are as deep as the main canyon of Colorado River. The rivers on the bottom of those canyons are very small—or there are no rivers at all, only some seasonal washes.  

The biggest of those side canyons are the Kanab Creek Canyon on the north and Havasu Creek Canyon on the south side of the Grand Canyon. Both are located on the west side of Kaibab Plateau. Unless there was more water flowing down those canyons, they could not have been carved by those small creeks and washes.

Down the Colorado River, more small canyons enter the main Canyon from the opposing angles. Havasu Creek Canyon enters the Colorado River Canyon at almost a straight (90 degrees) angle; several smaller canyons west of Havasu also have this strange characteristic. They are carved in the opposite direction to the river.

If the Kaibab ascent took millions of years, those canyons would have completely different directions, especially considering the fact that they are located on the other, western side of Kaibab Upwarp. The carving of the Great Canyon can be explained only by an event of catastrophic proportions.

People trying to ridicule creationists say that the Flood of Noah which deposited the layers of sediment which Colorado River cuts through could not at the same time carve the Grand Canyon. Before we will analyze this topic, let’s dwell shortly on the creationist theory of “Overspill.”

Creationists claim that Kaibab Plateau ascended at the time of the mabul, which is confirmed by the fact that strata layers are continuously curved down toward eastern lower elevation without fractures. This indeed demonstrates that the uplift occurred when the sediment of the mabul was still soft and uncemented. It is easily observable when we follow the shape of Coconino Sandstone, where thee contrast in color and outline are most noticeable.

Then the space behind this natural dam was filled with receding flood waters, melting ice from Rocky Mountains, and even heavy precipitation on this side of the Rockies after the mabul. The lower space of Colorado Plateau was soon filled up to its capacity. Actually several huge water bodies were located high above sea level on the Colorado Plateau. Two of them are known as Hopi Lake and Grand Lake.

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Map Of Hypothetical Lakes of Colorado Plateau

Hopi Lake was covering approximately southern half of Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations. Grand Lake of southern Utah was filling up the space between Rockies on the east and several mountain ranges and plateaus on the north and west. On the south western side, the Grand Lake was blocked by the plateau forming on its other side Vermilion and Echo Cliffs running from northwest to southeast, not separated than by Colorado River and Marble Canyon. Vermilion-Echo cliffs were perhaps also the northern coast of the Lake Hopi, as the bottom of the cliffs are only 3,700 feet above sea level, which would make the deepest part of Lake Hopi. Most of the lake was rather shallow. Its bottom was gently sloped down from south to the north, toward Vermilion-Echo Cliffs.

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Vermilion Cliffs

As result of overspill—over the Kaibab Plateau, according to some, or through an underground system of caverns crossing Kaibab Plateau from east to west, according to others—the waters of those lakes drained down, cutting the Grand Canyon. Specifically, the water cascaded down the west side of Kaibab Plateau, carving the canyon and cutting through Plateau.

This theory may be appealing, but it still does not explain several issues. First is the lower elevation on the north side of Kaibab Plateau. The highest elevation dividing the Northern side of the Kaibab Plateau and Paunsaugunt Plateau where Pink Cliffs of Bryce National Park are located is less than 5,500 feet above sea level. That’s approximately the highest point along Highway 89 between Fredonia and Page.

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Slab With Shallow Water Ripples Along Highway 89

Kaibab Plateau at the place where it is cut by the Grand Canyon, rises up to more than 7,000 feet above sea level. Just as the river could not flow uphill as evolutionists’ theory demands, it likewise presents problem for the creationists’ theory of overspill.

The creationists have offered another theory as well, involving the underground passage between Lake Hopi and the western side of the Kaibab Plateau. The pressure of the water supposedly enlarged the caverns, and the mass of rocks above ultimately collapsed. The lakes then cascaded down cutting the canyon. This theory also presents several problems.

First is the size of this enlarged underground tunnel. In order to accommodate 1,500 feet of rock layers from above, it would have had to be an enormous tunnel. If the running water enlarged this natural tunnel, the 1,500 feet of rock above it would collapse and close the outlet. New water filling Lake Hopi would find a much easier outlet on the north side of Kaibab Plateau where the valley between Kaibab Plateau and Paunsaugunt Plateau is approximately 1,500 feet lower than the rims of the Canyon. The Grand Canyon would have been formed somewhere along today’s Route 89.

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Bizarre Rock Formations Along Highway 89

This theory also cannot explain the existence of the huge side canyons and barbed wire canyons on the west side of the Plateau. It does explain, however, barbed wire canyons on the east side of the plateau, on the bottom of the Lake Hopi. The lake simply drained toward lower elevation, which happened to be against the direction of the Colorado River, the main drainage canal of the Lake Hopi. But then, another problem still exists.

After several years of traveling to this beautiful region of our country and enjoying lectures, both spoken and written, on the topic, I came to yet another solution. Of course I’m a tour guide and not geologist, so this theory must be still verified by specialists.

I observed that the upper strata layers are curved down toward middle of the Grand Canyon in similar manner as Kaibab Plateau slopes down to the east. A gradual but much less dramatic curve can be observed especially on the south rim and in some of the buttes inside the Canyon. It suggests that when the Kaibab Plateau was uplifted during the end of the mabul, the underground seismic powers did not push up the Plateau equally. It appears to be that there was a large valley across Kaibab Plateau going from the east to west, a sort of proto-Grand Canyon. Another lower elevation and break along the chain of uplifts, ranges, and plateaus on the west of the Colorado Plateau was located north of Kaibab Plateau, along today’s Highway 89.

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One of the Inner Buttes of the Grand Canyon, Coconino Formation is Visibly Lower Toward Center of the Canyon – View from West to East

The last tsunami wave of the mabul which I described previously, coming from the side of Atlantic Ocean or perhaps Gulf of Mexico, filled up the Colorado plateau, which had already been uplifted by this stage of the mabul. More than this, the waters of this tsunami overflowed the Kaibab Plateau and carved the Grand Canyon or at least most of it on the west side. While the water was flowing to the west, carving the main canyon, it also cut most of the side canyons, as the power of water was still enormous. Draining in different directions as the freshly shaped post-flood topography allowed, it cut the canyons in different directions in still partially soft ground.

It is possible that if the wave or succession of waves were big enough, it would have washed away the layers of sediment from the plateau on the south side of the Grand Canyon. Only Red Butte stays as remainder of those missing layers. The secondary sediment of the material washed from Mesozoic strata and the Grand Canyon itself were redeposited, most probably in the valleys west of Canyon. It is especially exposed in places like Valley of Fire State Park, where sedimentary rock of flood deposits is revealed through the mixed later deposits by recent erosion. Similar spots can be found in many places around Las Vegas and beyond.

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Sediment of Flood Covered with Postdiluvian Mud – Valley of Fire

The rest of the water flowed down from the Colorado Plateau through the two lowest elevations on the west side of the Plateau: the valley of the proto-Grand Canyon and the valley on the north side of Kaibab Plateau. The southern outlet continued to carve the Grand Canyon to the east side of the Kaibab upwarp and the northern outlet carved Kanab Canyon: the side canyon of the main canyon.

It is possible that some of the water stayed after those events and Lake Hopi really existed for some time after the mabul. Most of the water from what was described here as Lake Hopi drained toward lower elevations along Vermilion-Echo cliffs, washing along the way the bottom of the cliffs and breaching the huge Grand Lake of southern Utah, as the cliffs divided those two great lakes. If so, it would explain another puzzle of that region: the Petrified Forest of the National Park of the same name.

It is located on the east side of the Lake Hopi where the logs from antediluvian forests still floated on the surface of the water. Those logs were covered by the volcanic ash from nearby San Francisco volcanic range active after the mabul, as is evident from the lava floats on the top of today’s earth surface. The Lake Hopi filled with ash, overflowed, and drained down trough Little Colorado River Canyon toward the Grand Canyon

Meanwhile the under washed Vermilion-Echo cliff collapsed at the certain spot and the 2,000-foot deep Grand Lake cascaded toward the Grand Canyon, deepening it even more. The rest of the Lake’s water drained trough Paria River Canyon and Glen Canyon.

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Famous Bend of Glen Canyon

Both of those Canyons meet at the Lee’s Ferry. It is striking how different those canyons are, regardless of their proximity and geological surroundings. Paria River Canyon is almost straight, broad, U-shaped; Glen Canyon with its vertical walls, curves dramatically and is famous for its stunning beauty. Although coming from apparently a single source, those two canyons were carved by different kind of powers.

Perhaps some of the water of the Grand Lake was separated after draining into the smaller body of water.  Perhaps the meandering turns of the Glen canyon carved in the uncemented bottom of the Lake were greater in number, going more to the south. These kinds of meanders could not be carved in solid rock as today’s red walls of the Glen Canyon are. It was still possible because this part of the sediment was still unexposed and soft on the bottom of the water for the most time of the mabul and sometime after. Perhaps some time after that, the small relatively, body of water breached some natural dam and carved Paria River Canyon in already cemented sediment.

All of this is guessing but I’m trying to put this difficult puzzle in most sensible fashion. It is beyond my capability and scope of this work to find the answers for all of the issues possibly to be raised, on the topic of the creation of the Grand Canyon.

For topic of the mabul—the Great Flood of Noah—I have the guidance of Chazal, our Sages, who received tradition about the Flood from the previous generations of Sages, all the way back to the times of the Revelation on Sinai, or perhaps even to the time of Shem ve Aiver—children of Noah. Although it was extremely difficult for me to collect Chazal’s statement regarding historical and technical aspect of mabul, I did the best to my abilities. There may be still more data that can be added to this work, and it is possible that it will be.

As was said before, our Sages concentrated their teaching on moral perfection of individual and society, rarely occupying themselves with science. Following warning of the Gemura Shabes 75a, “He who is in the position to gain insights into the calculations of the cycles and the courses of the heavenly bodies but neglects to do so, of him Scripture says (Yeshayuhi 5:12): ‘They do not wish to contemplate the work of G-d and do not have an eye for the work of His hands.’” Some of the most prominent Sages in our Jewish history were great scientists: astronomers, naturalists, physicians, mathematicians, chemists, physicists.

I hope and I pray to Almighty, for the new generations of scientists faithful and loyal to our Torah and Its Giver: Hashem Yisburach.

On subject of the creation of the Grand Canyon I have to rely on the leading non-Jewish creationists because there is no single work on those topics written by faithful Jews. Thank G-d, there are more people however who accept part of our Heritage and use it as the guidelines for their research.

Thanks to our Creator, Who privileged me with the opportunity to visit some of the most beautiful sites on this continent and perhaps planet Earth. It allows me to make my own humble research and share its results with the public.

Above written and pictographic material can be used for free by anyone, however it would be a propriety to mention from where it was taken and who the author is.

 

 

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